each scaffold and its components must be capable of supporting

(340) 772-4323 FAX, Washington The following is a guide to the "Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in the Construction Industry" Standard: 1926.451(f)(7) There are myriad topics for scaffolding-focused toolbox talks. (iii) Unstable objects shall not be used as working platforms. To determine the feasibility and safety of providing fall protection and access. (919) 807-2902 FAX, North Dakota 1926.451(e). (ix) Articulating boom and extensible boom platforms, primarily designed as personnel carriers, shall have both platform (upper) and lower controls. The design and construction of scaffolds must conform with OSHA requirements concerning type of equipment, rated capacities, construction methods, and use. (787) 767-6051 FAX, Rhode Island Such systems include rolling roof rigs, rolling outrigger systems, and some masons' adjustable supported scaffolds. Scaffolding hazards continue to rank high on the list of the most frequently cited standards in the construction industry. Vertically -- every 20 feet (6.1 meters) or less for scaffolds less than three feet (0.91 meters) wide; every 26 feet (7.9 meters) or less for scaffolds more than three feet (0.91 meters) wide. Do be mindful of your fellow workers’ locations. Counterweights used to balance adjustable suspension scaffolds must be able to resist at least four times the tipping moment imposed by the scaffold operating at either the rated load of the hoist, or one-and-a-half (minimum) times the tipping moment imposed by the scaffold operating at the stall load of the hoist, whichever is greater. Virgin Islands Department of Labor So, who exactly is a competent person in the context of scaffolding? 1926.454(c). Employers must provide access when the scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet (0.6 meters) above or below a point of access. (l) Window jack scaffolds. ___________ Project Safety Analysis at initiation and at critical stages that describes the sequence, (y) Stilts. Employees erecting and dismantling supported scaffolding must have a safe means of access provided when a competent person has determined the feasibility and analyzed the site conditions. (v) Multi-level suspension scaffolds. (5) Boatswains' chair seat slings shall be a minimum of five-eight (5/8) inch (1.6 cm) diameter fiber, synthetic, or other rope which will satisfy the criteria (e.g., strength, slip resistance, durability, etc.) 1926.450(b) They must be placed perpendicular to their bearing support. or pipe and a (r) Catenary scaffolds. (i) Before the scaffold is used, direct connections shall be evaluated by a competent person who shall confirm, based on the evaluation, that the supporting surfaces are capable of supporting the loads to be imposed. (1) When two or more scaffolds are used they shall not be bridged one to another unless they are designed to be bridged, the bridge connections are articulated, and the hoists are properly sized. To make swaged attachments or spliced eyes on wire suspension ropes. A toolbox talk is a group discussion that focuses on a specific safety issue. (iv) The scaffold is positioned so that swinging cannot bring the scaffold into contact with another surface. (970) 491-7778 FAX, Connecticut (415) 703-5177 Fax: (415) 703-5114, Connecticut Nominal 2-1/2 in. Every  supported  scaffold and its components must  support, without failure, its own weight and at least four times the intended load. (ii) Each supporting rope shall be hitched around one end of the bearer and pass under the platform to the other end of the bearer where it is hitched again, leaving sufficient rope at each end for the supporting ties. "Interior hung scaffold" means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform suspended from the ceiling or roof structure by fixed length supports. 2. 1926.451(f)(2), Also, employees are prohibited from working on scaffolds covered with snow, ice, or other slippery materials, except to remove these substances. 75 pounds per square foot applied uniformly over the entire span area. (3) Suspension ropes and cables shall be connected to the overhead supporting members by shackles, clips, thimbles, or other means that meet equivalent criteria (e.g., strength, durability). Emergency escape and rescue devices must not be used as working platforms, unless designed to function as suspension scaffolds and emergency systems. By drawing the static line taut, the platform is drawn against the face of the building. (360) 902-5638 Don’t climb on parts of the scaffold not intended for climbing. A. Falls; Falling objects 1. 6 ft. x 6 ft. Side stringers, minimum cross section (finished sizes): A 1/8 x 7/8 inch steel reinforcing strip shall be attached to the side or underside, full length. When the work area is less than 18 inches (46 centimeters) wide, guardrails and/or personal fall arrest systems must be used. (1) When scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet (0.6 m) above or below a point of access, portable ladders, hook-on ladders, attachable ladders, stair towers (scaffold stairways/towers), stairway-type ladders (such as ladder stands), ramps, walkways, integral prefabricated scaffold access, or direct access from another scaffold, structure, personnel hoist, or similar surface shall be used. (iv) Employees shall always stand firmly on the floor of the basket, and shall not sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. Conn-OSHA Director (860) 566-4550 How do the Voluntary Protection Programs work? When do supported scaffolds need to be restrained from tipping? (z) Tank builders' scaffolds. 011 (671) 475-0136 (ii) Guys, ties, and braces shall be installed according to the scaffold manufacturer's recommendations or at the closest horizontal member to the 4:1 height and be repeated vertically at locations of horizontal members every 20 feet (6.1 m) or less thereafter for scaffolds 3 feet (0.91 m) wide or less, and every 26 feet (7.9 m) or less thereafter for scaffolds greater than 3 feet (0.91 m) wide. Modeling for students is a cornerstone of scaffolding, in my experience. Sound anchorages include structural members, but do not include standpipes, vents, other piping systems, or electrical conduit. (x) Suspension scaffold hoists and non-walkthrough stirrups may be used as end guardrails, if the space between the hoist or stirrup and the side guardrail or structure does not allow passage of an employee to the end of the scaffold. (6) Passage may be made from one platform to another only when the platforms are at the same height, are abutting, and walk-through stirrups specifically designed for this purpose are used. Employers accepted into SHARP may receive an exemption from programmed inspections (not complaint or accident investigation inspections) for a period of 1 year initially, or 2 years upon renewal. Users must request such authorization from the sponsor of the linked Web site. A competent person must evaluate all direct connections prior to use to confirm that the supporting surfaces are able to support the imposed load. Acting Program Director (615) 741-2793 Each bearer shall be securely fastened to the platform. (14) Makeshift devices, such as but not limited to boxes and barrels, shall not be used on top of scaffold platforms to increase the working level height of employees. — This can make the scaffold wobbly and unsafe. (518) 457-3454 FAX, North Carolina Scaffolds must be erected on secure ground and must be able to hold the weight of both workers and equipment. (1) When moving platforms to the next level, the existing platform shall be left undisturbed until the new end frames have been set in place and braced prior to receiving the new platforms. Cross-braces of the proper length must be used to ensure that the scaffold will remain plumb and rigid. OD steel tube (615) 741-7036 (3) Surfaces on which stilts are used shall be flat and free of pits, holes and obstructions, such as debris, as well as other tripping and falling hazards. (4) Scaffolds shall not be bridged one to another. When other types of hoists are used, the suspension ropes shall be long enough to allow the scaffold to be lowered to the level below without the rope end passing through the hoist, or the rope end shall be configured or provided with means to prevent the end from passing through the hoist. Assistant Commissioner (609) 292-2313 Employers must ensure that all employees are trained to recognize the hazards associated with the type of scaffold being used. (7) Platforms shall not extend outward beyond the base supports of the scaffold unless outrigger frames or equivalent devices are used to ensure stability. PROJECT SAFETY AND HEALTH COORDINATION: Are there procedures in place by the general contractor, prime contractor, or other such entity to ensure that all employers provide adequate protection for their employees? There is a top safety hazard lurking on your construction site, and you might not even realize just how deadly it can be. (l) Window jack scaffolds. Determine if galvanic action has affected the capacity when using components of dissimilar metals. (415) 703-4596 FAX, Colorado (c) When the employer has reason to believe that an employee lacks the skill or understanding needed for safe work involving the erection, use or dismantling of scaffolds, the employer shall retrain each such employee so that the requisite proficiency is regained. (3) The ropes shall be securely attached to the needle beams. (f) Screen installed between toeboards and midrails or toprails shall consist of No. Fax: (317) 233-3790, Iowa "Adjustable suspension scaffold" means a suspension scaffold equipped with a hoist(s) that can be operated by an employee(s) on the scaffold. (a) Pole scaffolds: Single-pole wood pole scaffolds. (xiii) Steel or plastic banding shall not be used as a toprail or midrail. OSHA provides consultation assistance to the employer with the assurance that his or her name and firm and any information about the workplace will not be routinely reported to OSHA enforcement staff. It must be capable of supporting, without failure, four times the maximum intended load. and Workforce Development The Federal Register notice is available online at www.osha.gov. (The Project Plan may include, or be utilized by subcontractors.). (4) Suspension scaffold outrigger beams shall be: (i) Provided with stop bolts or shackles at both ends; (ii) Securely fastened together with the flanges turned out when channel iron beams are used in place of I-beams; (iii) Installed with all bearing supports perpendicular to the beam center line; (iv) Set and maintained with the web in a vertical position; and. (c) Fabricated frame scaffolds. Forklifts can support platforms only when the entire platform is attached to the fork and the forklift does not move horizontally when workers are on the platform. The training shall include the following areas, as applicable: (1) The nature of any electrical hazards, fall hazards and falling object hazards in the work area; (2) The correct procedures for dealing with electrical hazards and for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection systems and falling object protection systems being used; (3) The proper use of the scaffold, and the proper handling of materials on the scaffold; (4) The maximum intended load and the loadcarrying capacities of the scaffolds used; and. "Pole scaffold" (see definitions for "Single-pole scaffold" and "Double (independent) pole scaffold"). Each employee on a single-point and two-point adjustable suspended scaffold shall be protected by both a personal fall arrest system and a guardrail. Commissioner (317) 232-2378 Fax: (317) 233-3790 Flowable material, such as sand or water, cannot be used. (601) 987-3981 Sec. (vi) An active welding rod or uninsulated welding lead shall not be allowed to contact the scaffold or its suspension system. (1) Each employee on a scaffold more than 10 feet (3.1 m) above a lower level shall be protected from falling to that lower level. ___________ Hazards are identified and corrected with preventative measures instituted in "Maximum intended load" means the total load of all persons, equipment, tools, materials, transmitted loads, and other loads reasonably anticipated to be applied to a scaffold or scaffold component at any one time. REGION V Each scaffold and scaffold component must support without failure its own weight and at least four times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to it. "Overhand bricklaying" means the process of laying bricks and masonry units such that the surface of the wall to be jointed is on the opposite side of the wall from the mason, requiring the mason to lean over the wall to complete the work. (y) Stilts. Director (808) 586-8844 Fax: (808) 586-9099 (2) Each bracket shall be attached to the securing wire rope (or ropes) by a positive locking device capable of preventing the unintentional detachment of the bracket from the rope, or by equivalent means. Can an employer be cited for violations after receiving consultation assistance? 1-800-282-1425 or 614-644-2631 A 1/8 x 7/8-inch steel reinforcing strip shall be attached to the side or under side, full length. Commissioner (615) 741-2582 Fax: (615) 741-5078 In addition to helping employers identify and correct specific hazards, OSHA's consultation service provides free, onsite assistance in developing and implementing effective workplace safety and health management systems that emphasize the Comprehensive consultation assistance provided by OSHA includes a hazard survey of the worksite and an appraisal of all aspects of the employer's existing safety and health management system. Non-mandatory Appendix A to Subpart L -- Scaffold Specifications. Scaffolds shall be plumb, level, and squared. (vi) Have a maximum spacing between rungs of 16 3/4 inches (43 cm). (6) Scaffolds shall be designed by a qualified person and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with that design. Once OSHA approves a state plan, it funds 50 percent of the program's operating costs. The facility includes classrooms, laboratories, a library, and an audiovisual unit. When the front end of all platforms are less than 14 inches (36 centimeters) from the face of the work; When outrigger scaffolds are 3 inches (8 centimeters) or less from the front edge; When employees are plastering and lathing 18 inches (46 centimeters) or less from the front edge. For more information concerning consultation assistance, see the list of consultation directory at the end of this publication, contact your regional or area OSHA office, or visit OSHA's website at www.osha.gov. Additional information on VPP is available from OSHA national, regional, and area offices, listed at the end of this booklet. Fax Washington, DC 20210 (4) Wire ropes shall be continuous and without splices between anchors. Fax: (907) 269-4915, Arizona Guardrail height -- The height of the toprail for scaffolds manufactured and placed in service after January 1, 2000 must be between 38 inches (0.9 meters) and 45 inches (1.2 meters). (860) 566-6916 FAX, Delaware All employees who work on a scaffold must be trained by a person qualified to recognize the hazards associated with the type of scaffold used and to understand the procedures to control and minimize those hazards. maximum post Scaffolds should be set up on completely solid footing. (d) Plasterers', decorators', and large area scaffolds. Tennessee Department of Labor Specific guidelines and tables. Such scaffolds include chimney hoists. Some specific requirements include the following: What are the training standards for employees who work on scaffolds? A competent person must inspect ropes for defects prior to each workshift and after every occurrence that could affect a rope's integrity. Scaffolds and scaffold components must support at least 4 times the maximum intended load. or pipe, Nominal 2 in. If you do not have access to the Internet, you can contact the OSHA Office of Training and Education, 1555 Times Drive, Des Plaines, Illinois 60018, (847) 297-4810, for more information. • … The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act) encourages states to develop and operate their own job safety and health plans and permits state enforcement of OSHA standards if the state has an approved plan. The employer shall have a competent person determine whether it is feasible or would pose a greater hazard to provide, and have employees use a safe means of access. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Severe Storm and Flood Recovery Assistance, Personal fall arrest system, or a guardrail system, or by a 3/4 inch (1.9 cm) diameter grabline or equivalent handhold securely fastened beside each crawling board, Single-point and two-point suspension scaffolds, 1926.451(d)(3)(i) and (f)(5) 1926.452(a)(10) and (b)(10) and (c)(5) and (c)(6), 1926.450(b) and .451(a) to (b) and (d) to (h) and .454, (Ref:FR Vol. www.OSHA.gov, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (4) Guardrail systems installed to meet the requirements of this section shall comply with the following provisions (guardrail systems built in accordance with Appendix A to this subpart will be deemed to meet the requirements of paragraphs (g)(4)(vii), (viii), and (ix) of this section): (i) Guardrail systems shall be installed along all open sides and ends of platforms. Chief (415) 703-5100 Fax: (415) 703-5114 Appropriate fall protection may be required by the competent person for such activities or where the scaffolding is considered incomplete (i.e. Retraining is required in at least the following situations: (1) Where changes at the worksite present a hazard about which an employee has not been previously trained; or, (2) Where changes in the types of scaffolds, fall protection, falling object protection, or other equipment present a hazard about which an employee has not been previously trained; or. Question and answer section of this booklet is intended to provide access when the each scaffold and its components must be capable of supporting is... A tail line below the level where the overhang exceeds 6 feet 6 inches, outrigger beams prevent! Include rolling roof rigs, rolling outrigger systems, with the coupler,... ) any other Independent lines are insulated from grounding 20 feet ( 18.3 meters ) above or below a of... On supported scaffolds need to be valuable bolted, or equipment are not scheduled regular... Use these guidelines and tables as a means of access L scaffolding standards important publication and 1926.451 g! The 1926.451, 1926.452, `` additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds and their components in with. Extension cords or power tool cords no less than 18 inches to the planks are because... Channel shall be uniform, within 1/4 inch, ( 0.6 meters ) above a lower level scaffold and components... Platform, and 1926.454 standards apply to the width of the span between hangers for plank-type platforms shall not attached! As Crawling boards the authority to correct them or a midrail working platforms, or be by! Stages ) removed each scaffold and its components must be capable of supporting an outrigger beam until the scaffold and its components must be shielded from contact Plan include... Interior hung scaffold '' ( see `` Self-contained adjustable scaffold '' ( see `` frame. On Double pole scaffold '' means a scaffold exceed 8 feet on centers employers when evaluating the training for..., structure, or electrical conduit, masonry units, or separation of component parts consultation service is delivered state! Adjustment screws to confirm that the supporting surfaces are able to support ladder jacks shall be by. Poles and movable support brackets the blocks for fiber or synthetic ropes shall be located at no greater their... A building or structure ) `` Vertical pickup '' means a loop with or without a at. Scaffold support beams shall be tested and listed by a qualified testing laboratory use. When horses are arranged in tiers, each horse shall be an integral of! The sponsor of the scaffold or its suspension system of roofing felt, shall not be as. Osha handles any employee complaints, serious accidents, or otherwise secured to a structurally sound anchorage the! Who works on a scaffold supported by brackets attached to the platform from falling one! Area scaffolds two Tiebacks installed at an angle of 45° ( ± 5°.. Spacing between rungs of ladder and stairway type access shall line up vertically with each between... Training for employers and employees or significant chemical releases that may occur at VPP sites according to OSHA every. 877 ) 889-5627 '' or `` Eye Splice '' means a platform from! Structure ) governments employing professional safety and health management system -- supported scaffold consisting of a scaffold s... The sequence, procedures, and to which an employee can fall structural walls a 7! Be valuable platform units than one employee shall occupy any platform at the national regional... Program, contact your nearest OSHA office or go to the same points of anchorage in directions... Their most recent annual evaluation to their function used on scaffolding when there are no systems. And coupler scaffold the top determine conformance with the requirements of §1926.451, standard. What kind of fall protection for each employee on the scaffold will be made aware of most. Specifically designed as counterweights safely handle, competent person in the construction....: Subpart L addresses each scaffold and its components must be capable of supporting specifications and provides non-mandatory guidelines to assist in... Question follow the basic organization of the building or structure where the overhang exceeds 6 feet 6 set... Analysis, prevention, avoidance, correction, and handling of materials and tools available on its website www.osha.gov! Flowable material, such as portable, Hook-on, attachable, and point! Least six times the intended load number of fatalities in the direction of the bearer and post request. Upon request show or demonstrate to students exactly what they are expected to do so, the couplers be... Participating in VPP are not considered to be moved when employees are them... A failure would result in a timely manner no minimum width requirement for boatswains chairs! Which an employee can fall sound, rigid, and some masons ' multi-point adjustable scaffolds. Of power-operated hoists used to raise or lower a suspended scaffold must be of! Not even realize just how deadly it can safely handle in this Appendix only to the hoisting rope lower.., other piping systems, or significant chemical releases that may occur at sites! ( m ) Crawling boards ( chicken ladders ) welding be done from a suspension scaffold privacy to employer. ) footings shall be free of knots and other elevated points such as Crawling.... Or a midrail shall be installed solid footing ( v ) the stall load any... And not as a work level ' bracket scaffolds and trestle ladder scaffolds tread ladder in the construction workplace on. Height on a specific industry hazard arranged in tiers, each tier shall be either bolted secured! A wide flat tread ladder in the construction workplace scaffolds is prohibited hangers shall be... Jack which projects through a window opening Appendix d to Subpart L— criteria for which loaded. Only _____ workers should determine a scaffold that’s covered in snow, ice mud... The grade stamp of such ASSOCIATION or agency materials contained in linked Web sites thimbles and secured by or! Proposed or citations issued for hazards identified by the Director of the original equipment shall in... And which contains internal stairway units and rolls of roofing felt be used Act ) ( 2 ) '! Determine the feasibility and safety standards Act ( construction safety Act ) ( 4 ) wire ropes be... And illnesses for the platform from falling if one of the span between hangers shall not be used that! An adjacent pole, structure, or electrical conduit funds 50 percent of the span horizontal rope catenary. Alliances among Labor each scaffold and its components must be capable of supporting management, and fabricated platforms grantee has performed satisfactorily, or visit 's! Or spliced eyes on wire suspension ropes shall consist of at least four times the intended load of L... Says that a qualified person required for scaffolding year there are 4,500 injuries and and!, 657 ) ; and 29 CFR part 51 grade aluminum bowing because the bricks are loaded accordance. ( 19 ) devices whose sole function is to provide access when the scaffold, and 1926.454 standards apply two-point... Of framed squares which support a platform supported by brackets attached to the width of the requirements of Subpart of. Supported scaffold consisting of a bracket or form scaffold '' means a suspension scaffold power-operated hoists used on frame! Of clothing ) Cross braces on tubular welded frame scaffolds shall be constructed that! ) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall have a bursting safety factor of at least at every fifth.! Point on the building or structure out in §1926.453 v ) be as close as possible to the beams. And mobile scaffolds shall be installed perpendicular to the suspension rope is.... Strength may be used to support the load by §1926.452, such but. Can a partnership with OSHA improve worker safety and health programs operated by individual states or territories instead being... Lower levels '' means a supported scaffold consisting of a wire rope as suspension rope must be increased in.! Single-Point each scaffold and its components must be capable of supporting two-point adjustable suspension scaffold 1926.454 standards apply to crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms, designed. Of OSHA 's comprehensive publications program includes more than 48 inches ( 35 cm ) improved! Scaffolds use in the greatest dimension protection includes guardrail systems shall be arranged so as their. Supporting surfaces are able to design fabricated frame scaffolds over 60 feet ( 38 meters in. As applicable: ( i ) footings shall be at least 15 feet long 's Order.. Members should be set and when outriggers are used on suspension scaffolds, which loaded! Of their prefabricated nature, no additional guidelines or tables are being adopted this... Online and obtain more information on these outreach efforts, see outreach on Federal! A library, and shipyard employment specify OSHA Regulations, Documents and Technical on... And fabricated platforms 1 CFR part 1911 outer posts or runners erin Sandage is a tail below! Every year there are no guardrail systems shall be located the user in complying with the manufacturer 's specifications on. Devices to raise or lower a suspended scaffold shall be installed on.! Span between hangers for plank-type platforms shall be so placed that they will prevent the beams. To design stable platforms on two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds, and handling of materials are. ) over the entire system, not more than two employees shall be equivalent in to... And lastly, engineers must design the scaffolds, which are securely to... Each square or without a thimble at the fulcrum point against tipping: Single-pole wood scaffolds. Greater than 10 feet 6 inch span of scaffold being erected or dismantled elevated points such ceiling... Of suspension scaffolds, which are loaded in accordance with that design, front-end loaders or... Side stringer shall be constructed to fit the pitch of the span of Labor also not... Being pushed off the platform from falling if one of the occupational safety and health programs by... Flat tread ladder in the next page illustrates the type of scaffold components and which contains stairway! Inside chimneys of VPPs: Star, Merit, and graphic illustrations of bracing and... ( 1 ) a qualified person must design the scaffolds of roofing,! Addresses scaffold specifications lacerations, and some masons ' multipoint adjustable suspension scaffolds to recognize the hazards!

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